There was a need to examine subtle factors like cultural conditioning and experiences. She proposes that the differences between men and women entrepreneurs are to be observed in a situational and cultural context. Till s, the role of women in most western economies was seen as that of a wife and a mother.
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Women drew heavily upon home front for ideas and lacked basic commercial networks. As a result, the market entry choices of women differed. The review paper proposes that the advent of women founded businesses was one of the reflections of a changing society. In future the profile of women entrepreneurs are likely to match changing situations and become closer to that of male entrepreneurs.
In , the third published review by Moore suggests that focused studies on female entrepreneurship were a relatively new phenomenon in the late s. The field was in an initial stage of paradigm development. She reviewed 21 studies on female entrepreneurship and reports that these studies were fragmented and unrelated in nature. These studies provided descriptions of only a small section of the larger population of female entrepreneurs. Further, these studies borrowed theoretical concepts from other areas that were not valid for the women entrepreneurship domain.
Moore suggests that there is a need to establish a statistical research base and develop typologies, models and theories in this area. The next review by Brush suggests that not only has the number of women business owners grown considerably over the past decade but also there has been an increase in the number of research studies on women business owners. She reports that research over the decade has shown some similarities and some differences between male and female business owners.
Similarities have been reported on demographic features, some psychological traits and business skillset. Differences have been reported on educational background, occupation, motivation to start a business and approach to business creation and growth. She further suggests that the differences have not been fully explained in literature.
Brush proposes an integrated perspective to explain gender-based differences, which is rooted in psychological and sociological theories. The integrated perspective suggests that women perceive their businesses as a cooperative network of relationships comprising of family, society and personal relationships.
This view is different from the economic perspective of firm creation and is likely to offer explanations for differences between male and female entrepreneurs. They report that even though the research on women entrepreneurs has grown considerably there is still speculation on the differences between male and female entrepreneurs, which is largely atheoretical in nature. They use the perspectives of liberal feminism and social feminism to interpret the past research in this area.
In addition to the review, the article also presents findings from a survey of including 11 women manufacturing firm owners, including 29 women retail firm owners, and including 20 women service firm owners. Fischer et al.
From a policy perspective, this study suggests that access to apprenticeship in industry for women entrepreneurs can be beneficial as it is the best way to prepare for launching a business in a particular industry. Further, women entrepreneurs can also benefit by being exposed to business start-ups. They propose that the theories of liberal feminism and social feminism can be used to further understand undefined male and female socialization differences, which can possibly explain why men and women run their businesses in different yet equally effective ways.
The sixth review by Baker et al. They report two dissenting voices including scholars and women advocacy groups. Scholars researching on sex and gender issues reason in favor of systematic empirical differences in male and female work behaviors.
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Mainstream academic journals and media journalists perceived women owned firms as small lifestyle businesses or sole proprietorship firms. Baker et al. This review also tries to identify and provide explanations for similarities and differences between female and male entrepreneurs. The paper proposes that the field of women entrepreneurship can be advanced via deliberations on two topics. Firstly, scholars need to focus on the very construction of the female entrepreneur category, which lays greater emphasis on gender over other types of stratification.
Secondly, there is a need to understand relationships between gender, occupation and organizational structure and their impact on female versus male entrepreneurs.
Research review by Gundry et al. The review summaries key topics, findings and offers directions for future research. Gundry et al.
They also suggest that there is a need for research on women entrepreneurs in developing countries. The review focuses mainly on articles from four leading entrepreneurship research journals namely i Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice ii Journal of Business Venturing iii The Journal of Small Business Management and iv Entrepreneurship and Regional Development.
Ahl suggests that there is a need to expand the research object and move from an individualist focus of examining the female entrepreneur to include more factors and studies like contingency studies or comparative studies that include researchers from different countries. Ahl also suggests that there is a need to make a shift in epistemological position from how gender is done how women entrepreneurs construct their lives and businesses to how social orders are gendered examples include business legislations, policy, support systems, cultural norms, labor divisions.
This paper offers new research directions that are not reproductions of women's subordination but offers a richer perspective on women entrepreneurship grounded in feminist theories. The next article by de Bruin et al. The journal received total 52 submissions from authors in 21 countries. Finally 11 articles were published as special issues in two volumes of the journal. They propose that there is a need to pursue more research that is connected to theory. This can help capture the heterogeneity in women entrepreneurship research. Further, they suggest that the field of entrepreneurship can advance by encouraging several scholarly communities to flourish that focus in depth on closely defined subject areas.
And the area of women entrepreneurship can be one such scholarly community. The project now has participants from 20 countries and can be considered as a good example of developing focused professional communities in this area. The next article, again, by de Bruin et al. They present an analysis of the existing and future research themes in women entrepreneurship. Themes reported are financing the venture; networks or social capital; firm performance covering growth, growth strategies, and success; and individual characteristics like entrepreneurial orientation, self-efficacy, intentions, motivations and decision models.
They highlight that very few authors had explicitly studied the entrepreneurial processes of women entrepreneurs. Further, there was paucity of research on environment for women entrepreneurship that may cover studies from different countries, regions like rural or urban and different business sectors. They also outline methodological issues and reason whether there is a need for a separate theory on women entrepreneurship. They also suggest that the existing theoretical concepts need to be expanded to better explain the uniqueness of women entrepreneurship.
Brush et al. They propose a gender-aware framework for a holistic understanding of the phenomenon of women entrepreneurship. This can have a much larger impact especially in the case of female entrepreneurs as compared to male entrepreneurs. The next review by Ahl and Nelson presents an analysis of the research trends on gender and entrepreneurship and offers recommendations for new directions. They suggest that there is a need to re-frame the perspective on gender differing from biological sex in entrepreneurship research to include aspects of men, women, femininity or masculinity. They assert that a better dialogue can be achieved by using the word gender as a socially constructed phenomenon.
Sullivan and Meek review the literature from — on women entrepreneurship. They organize the literature review under a process model of entrepreneurship including pre-launch, launch and post-launch phases, which was initially proposed by Baron and Henry Sullivan and Meek extend this model and call it the process model of gender and entrepreneurship.
They report that research on women entrepreneurship has increased in the last two decades but there is still a greater need for more studies in this area. They suggest that women are likely to face barriers to entry due to unequal access to assets or resources or education, and are likely to face differing societal attributions and expectations.
To mitigate some of these concerns, women can be encouraged to pursue education in fields associated with highgrowth industries. Ahl and Marlow argue that there exists an occluded gender bias within the entrepreneurship discourse. This is contrary to the neo-liberal views on entrepreneurship that propose only personal efforts as determinants of reward and status. They highlight that even though there have been calls to use feminist theories as analytical frames, there are scant evidences of such applications. They argue that there are gendered assumptions that limit epistemological scope of research in this area and positions women entrepreneurs as either failed or reluctant subjects.
They propose that there is a need to build a reflexive critical perspective. This can help in evaluating the current theoretical approaches on women entrepreneurship within the broader ambit of entrepreneurship research. The next article by Hughes et al. This characterization is based on the visible growth indicators in the field like increasing number of conferences, journal special issue- call for papers and niche journals starting on this area like the International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship.
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Further, there are examples of other publications like GEM reports, chapters and books being published in the area of women entrepreneurship. This paper is an introduction to the second special issue of the Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice journal on women entrepreneurship in the year The special issue received total 40 submissions from 90 authors in 14 countries. The number of papers received was less than the first issue in and This could be due to presence niche journals on women entrepreneurship by Hughes et al.
They suggest that there is a need to be inclusive of diverse voices and apply a constructionist approach to answer traditional and non-traditional questions. They also indicate that most of the research collaborations in women entrepreneurship area are still restricted within national boundaries and future research needs building networks across transnational borders.
It presents an assessment of research contributions with reference to the larger context of entrepreneurship domain. It also discusses the challenges and opportunities for scholars studying the niche area of women entrepreneurship.
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