Hedging as an index of gender realization in research articles in applied linguistics. Iranian Journal of Applied Language, 3 2 , Atkinson, D.
Scientific discourse in sociohistorical context: The philosophical transactions of the royal society of London, — Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Biber, D.
Grammar of spoken and written English. London: Pearson Longman. Brown, C. Reducing sex differences in visual displays of dominance: Knowledge is power.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 16 6 , Brown, P. Universals in language usage: Politeness phenomena. N Goody Ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Chafe, W.
Hedging Research in Pragmatics: A Bibliographical Research Guide to Hedging
Evidentially in English conversation and academic writing. By Wallace Chafe, and Johanna Nichols, — New York: Ablex. Crystal, D. Investigating English style. London: Longman. Dousti, M. ELT students' gender differences in the use of hedges in interpersonal interactions: A mixed method approach applied. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 3 1 , Eckert, P. Elephants in the room.
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Journal of sociolinguistics, 7 3 , Fielding, N. Qualitative interviewing. Gibert ed. London: Sage. Greenbaum, S. A student's grammar of the English language. Halliday, M. Spoken and written language 2nd Ed. London: Oxford University Press. Holmes, J. Speaking English with the appropriate degree of conviction. Brumfit Ed. London: BAAL. Hedges and boosters in women's and men's speech. Language and Communication, 10 3 , An introduction to sociolinguistics 3rd Ed. London: Pearson Education Limited. House, J. Politeness markers in English and in German. Coulmas Ed.
Conversational routines. The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter. Understatements and hedges in English.
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Hyland, K. Hedging in scientific research articles. James, A. It is a communicative strategy that results in the weakening of the illocutionary force of the statement that otherwise makes it sound rude, impolite or straightforward. The term hedge was introduced by G.kyledykeman.com/top-cell-phone-track-app-galaxy-note-10.php
Understatements and Hedges in English | Axel Hübler
Lakoff Brown and Levinson analyze the notion of hedges from the point of view of politeness Speech Act Hedging. Brown and Levinson confirm that hedges are capable of softening and reinforcement of an expression. Wright and Hosman are one of the first scholars who single out the difference between intensifiers and hedges. According to them, if hedges are capable of reducing the force of a statement, intensifiers, on the contrary, tend to increase it. Caffi , analyses the process of mitigation — lessening the intensity or force of something unpleasant or attenuation of unfortunate effects on the hearer and introduces his own division of mitigating mechanisms bushes, hedges and shields.
Since the s linguists Aijmer , Kay , Fetzer have been much interested in the properties of individual hedges and begun to explore the use of hedges within different areas and genres such as political talk, scientific discourse, courtroom discourse, medical discourse, etc. Nowadays it is commonly agreed that the use of hedges largely depends on the genre. Brown, P. Some Universals in Language Usage.
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