Format: PDF. Lambers, Karsten; Zingman, Igor. Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology, We report on recent research undertaken in the framework of the Silvretta Archaeological Project, in which we are developing methods to detect certain types of archaeological ruins in remotely sensed images in order to assist archaeological survey.
Over the last decade, this new technology is being brought to bear in the field of archaeology. As nicely and comprehensively described in this book, remote sensing techniques are bringing new powerful tools to help archaeologists in their quest of discovery and exploration.
Even though this field is still in its infancy, the different articles in this book give us a glimpse of the things to come and the great potential of remote sensing in archaeology. The editors have brought an excellent sampling of authors that illustrate how remote sensing techniques are being used in the real world of arc- ological exploration. A number of chapters illustrate how spaceborne and airborne remote sensing instruments are being used to decipher surface morphological features in arid Egypt, Arabia , semi-arid Greece, Ethiopia, Italy , as well as tropical regions Costa Rica, Guatemala, Cambodia to help in archeological and paleontological exploration.
In this chapter, the state of the art of the change detection on archaeology applications and the latest change detection techniques in 2D and 3D are introduced. This chapter describes recent studies on the use of synthetic aperture radar for archaeological prospection and anthropogenic feature extraction.
- Macedonian grammar?
- Department of Archaeology.
- Was the Industrial Revolution Necessary?.
Radar remote sensing can provide unique information about objects on the ground from its sensitivity to the relative permittivity of materials and to surface roughness, as a function of the microwave wavelength. Methods have been developed to detect residues of buried structures over land cover types typical to Europe and the Middle East. These include agriculture, grassland and sand-covered areas.
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The techniques attempt to exploit the full information content of radar data, contained in both the amplitude and phase of the signal. They also attempt to make efficient use of time series. Results show that surface residues of buried archaeological structures in temperate vegetated areas can be identified in variously processed radar images. Anthropogenic features in sand-covered areas can also be efficiently detected.
Developments in Big Data analytics and Earth observation data accessibility have the potential to bring radar remote sensing closer to the cultural heritage community.
These Technologies Are Giving New Life to the Ancient World
Digital surface models representing the heights of an area can be derived from two or more multi- stereo images of airborne or spaceborne sensors. A satellite stereo image of a current very-high-resolution satellite like WorldView or GeoEye with ground pixel sizes of about half a meter allows the derivation of surface models in the range of the same resolution. Such surface models are the basis of many applications like the three-dimensional representation of the area, 3D change detection, calculation of volumes, detection of sight lines, or water flow and flooding. Satellite imagery covers large areas of about square kilometers with ground resolution of about 1 meter, while airborne images from planes or drones usually cover only small areas but with higher resolution.
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing
In this chapter the basics of digital surface models are shown, and the actually best method for deriving dense digital surface models from airborne and spaceborne images is described. Some examples finally show the possible results. This paper provides an overview on the application of satellite synthetic aperture radar SAR technology in archaeology. The growing developments of space SAR technologies in terms of observational capabilities spatial, spectral, radiometric, and temporal coverage had made the use of these technologies very attractive for archaeological investigations.
Although several achievements have been made in recent years on the basis of pioneering efforts addressed to the assessment of the potentiality of the L-, C-, and X-band SAR in archaeology, the full capability of these technologies for archaeological site detection is still incompletely evaluated until now. These enhanced characteristics, in terms of spatial resolution and radiometric quality, take the most recent SAR technologies to a new level for archaeological applications, addressed to object detection and target recognition.
Illegal excavations represent one of the main risks which affect archaeological heritage throughout the world. Actions oriented to quantify damage and prevent looting can be supported by satellite technologies which can provide reliable information to detect and map devastation phenomenon in particular for remote or non-accessible sites. In these cases, it is desirable to use satellite-based semiautomatic or automatic approaches for the mapping and quantification of looting patterns.
In this paper, an automatic method for archaeological looting feature extraction approach ALFEA has been applied to an archaeological site in Syria, Tell Sheikh Hamad, affected by archaeological looting before and during the civil war. Earth observation technologies are becoming increasingly important not only in monitoring practice in environmental domain, but also for detecting changes in urban areas caused by natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods or landslides.
Titles in this series
A range of high- and very high-resolution sensors useful for this purpose have been implemented as equipment of several missions launched since the year , mostly by private companies. The images employed for assessment of such damages are Quickbird images with less than 1 m resolution, providing inputs for an advanced visualisation technique.
The results of this process were discussed within a larger framework of emergency management cycle for possible thematic mapping, useful especially for response and recovery planning strategies. The Euphrates and the Tigris valleys in greater Mesopotamia provide a treasure trove for archaeologists studying the Roman and Byzantine eras. There existed some parts of the eastern frontier zone of the Roman and Byzantine empires, remains of which are in modern Syria and Turkey.
This was also the stage where some of the first steps in archaeological remote sensing were taken in aerial archaeology in the Near East in the beginning of the twentieth century. The spatial resolution of the images provided means to trace Roman sites and roads. SPOT images were acquired as well, and they revealed settlements and agricultural fields in the neighbourhood of the Euphrates valley.
Related Remote Sensing in Archaeology (Interdisciplinary Contributions to Archaeology)
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