Offering readings from German and contemporaneous Greek authors, Guthenke supplies a commentary on the translation and crossings of representational models and their limits. This is an original book, notable in its scope and the fresh scrutiny brought to Romantic Hellenism.
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Placing Modern Greece: The Dynamics of Romantic Hellenism, 1770-1840
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Personal Memoirs Penguin Classics. The ideal is not in polar opposition and national imagination in Greece hereafter TNR Yannis to the real. On the contrary, they nourish each other. I can- Hamilakis hereafter YH elaborates on the complex associ- not claim expertise in Modern Greek Studies, and com- ations between classical antiquity and national imagination ments from me about neglected works, authors, or dis- in Greek public discourse.
In TNR, classical antiquity refers courses would have little weight. My engagement with exclusively to the material remains from antiquity. Further- PMG stems from a general interest in the question of how more, YH does not treat archaeology as an academic or pro- classical antiquity has been appropriated in various settings. He is not concerned with how archaeology is sionally.
CG demonstrates that philosophical and aes- duced. In TNR, archaeology is a Greek public discourse. Ancient temples did not dictate interest in Greece as Greece, but to present a critique by means of case studies. Greece was con- contradictions in Greek public discourse. The local societies in Greece in the mid to late nineteenth cen- deployment of nature-images corresponds to the need to tury and its recasting as a novel, syncretic, and quasi-reli- demonstrate the naturalness of an emerging nation.
Initially, YH as- vironment. In a sense, the major theme of PMG complements serts that TNR is neither an anthropology of archaeology, an an understanding of Neo-Hellenic ethnogenesis. Rather, YH well. Western siding as it does in a wide variety of realms.
Multi-sited eth- Hellenism was adopted as the official national ideology nography aims not to favour one realm, or one kind of when Greece became independent. However, ancient re- sources, but to give equal weight to all contexts. In other mains were visible before and local people had always re- words, we can situate TNR in the second phase of the cul- lated to them. In Greek nationalistic history, the re-use of tural turn.
Placing Modern Greece: The Dynamics of Romantic Hellenism, 1770-1840
This interpretation projects contemporary Chapter two is an account of the agencies providing for notions backwards. YH presents another explanatory frame- archaeology in Greece. The Central Archaeological Council work, according to which classical remains were seen as re- is the supreme institutional body for heritage-management mains of a different world, perceived in religious terms, and in Greece.
It enjoys a high public profile, and advises the a different, mythical, time. They represented a peculiar Ministry of Culture in all matters that deal with cultural otherness.
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Ancient temples were often converted into places heritage-management. The Greek Archaeological Service, of worship. We are all familiar with the social history of the founded as early as , organizes the bulk of archaeologi- Parthenon, which has served both as a Christian church and cal excavations in Greece. Archaeologists in the Greek Ar- as a Muslim mosque. The Ottoman traveller Evliya Celebi chaeological Service decide if, and which, land should be witnessed in s Christians in Athens celebrating at the set apart for archaeological investigations.
However, the Tower of the Winds and Muslims worshipping at the col- meagreness of economic resources often results in long de- umns of the Temple of Zeus Olympios. Ethnographic ac- lays before actual investigations take place. This agency is counts confirm that classical remains were perceived as the forced to conduct hasty rescue digs. Resentment against ar- works of the Hellenes, a race of giants with supernatural chaeologists in the Greek Archaeological Service is com- powers. Ancient fragments were not incorporated into mon. Another account tells how many university archaeologists, foreign and Greek, have the blamed the destruction of one of the columns of the Temple means to conduct archaeological excavations which include of Zeus Olympios for the outbreak of an epidemic in an analytical, or interpretative, aspect Nevertheless, all 68— This kind of ethnography, called laographia, fo- archaeologists enjoy a high social status in Greece.
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Often cuses on collecting folk-memories, and goes hand in hand archaeologists are viewed as performing a national duty. Both discourses establish a conceptual YH regards Greek nationalism as a secular religion wor- continuity back to antiquity. However, laographia is also shipping antiquity. In this discourse, archaeologists are the crucial because it bridges the divide between Western Hel- priests There is a brief mention of archaeological ac- lenism and local indigenous appropriations of classical an- tivities supporting nationalism, such as the archaeological tiquity.
Influences from Western Hellenism are detectable dimension of the Greek occupation of Western Anatolia, among Greeks even before the independence of Greece. The —, and the Hellenization of place-names, particu- Philomousos Etaireia, founded in , aimed to discover, larly in northern Greece, in which archaeologists were in- collect, and present antiquities in museums.
Ancient re- strumental. As priests, archaeologists guard antiquity and mains were treated in accordance with the notions of West- the purity of the Greek nation. This guardianship also has ern Hellenism. The separation of antiquities from everyday aesthetic dimensions. Archaeologists have a say about the life illustrates that Western Hellenism is founded on moder- appearance of the environment surrounding archaeological nity. During a period, from the late 18th to the early 19th sites.
Its members turned away from their exhibitions. However, the vast major- YH reappraises this one-dimensional dismissal and il- ity of people in Greece retained their Christian world-view lustrates how they are integrated in a partnership, albeit in and continued to view classical remains as sacred.
YH ar- an asymmetrical relation, with Greek archaeology. Finally, gues that a process of a syncretism, which transformed an- YH considers the archaeological law. Archaeology is decisive here, since it prime symbolic weapon in the diplomatic war. Andronikos is responsible for the transformation of insignificant mate- provided ammunition for the Greek counterattack. In early rial remains into national monuments.
This process included national narratives, ancient Macedonia was portrayed as a three strategies; 1 the purification of the landscape foreign conqueror. Its place in the national ideology was se- through the removal of remains obstructing vestiges from cured only with Indigenous Hellenism. Another feature of Indige- demarcation of archaeological sites. The purification was nous Hellenism that Andronikos articulated was its empha- justified by aesthetic principles.
It also related to a wider sis on the spiritual continuity of Hellenism.
Dreams are a public discourse of purity and pollution. The aim was to pu- prominent metaphor in conceptualisations of Greek nation- rify archaeological sites from foreign pollutions. Initially, ality. For instance, the finding of the Western remains, too, were cleansed The spread of tomb of Philip II in Vergina is foretold by a dream received photography, with reproductions of clean monuments de- by a woman, unknown to him, in the USA An- void of any social life, enhanced the notion of purification dronikos was cunning and used his public standing to en- Epistemologically, Greek archaeology pursued an em- hance his fame.
The opening of the tomb of Philip II was piricism that explicitly refrained from interpretations and carefully staged in order to achieve maximum publicity explanations. In the end, Andronikos personified the archaeol- describing finds in order to let them speak for themselves ogist in Greece.
He was the leading shaman in a secular reli- Spyridon Marina- struggle for independence received support from Europe. The Third Hellenic Civilization, af- a political order, but Hellenism neutralized the radical con- ter classical Greece and the Byzantine Empire, was the notations of the Greek struggle References to generated tensions among the Greeks.
The exaggerated at- classical antiquity, and notably to the aspects of antiquity tention paid to the classical past was perceived by some as that mirrored the official policy, were frequent. YH identi- an obstacle to the modern development of Greece Sparta was glori- Furthermore, the Byzantine period and Orthodox Christian- fied by a theme in the propaganda according to which ordi- ity had negative connotations in Western Hellenism, which nary people should make sacrifices for the good of the state contradicted a Balkan reality in which religion was a ve- Byzantium, on the other hand, legitimized a strong hicle through which nationalism was channelled.
Another side of the se- lenism in the midth century. The influential historian lective glorification was the active prohibition of, for in- Konstantinos Paparrigopoulos laid the ground for Indige- stance, certain ancient dramas. The youth organization nous Hellenism in his seminal Istoria tou Ellinikou Ethnous, EON, with the Minoan double axe as its symbol, was cru- published between and He argued for a spiritual cial for the mediation of the propaganda.
EON organized continuity of Greekness from antiquity via the Byzantine public festivals, parades, and visits to archaeological sites. It period, and thus via Orthodox Christianity, to modern introduced a performative dimension to the appropriation of Greece — This syncretism was largely accepted antiquity in Greece. The extensive use of photographs in and replaced Western Hellenism as the official ideology. The images monumentalize both the anony- gious dogma. He was a celebrity Hellenic Civilization. The political ten- communistic, so left-wingers were outcasts of Greek so- sions between Greece and the former Yugoslav Republic of ciety.
He concludes that all centration camps on Makronisos during the Civil War, Greeks, regardless of political conviction, subscribe to an — Left-wing political views were criminalized overarching national discourse which casts classical an- and left-wingers were often sent into inner exile on a barren tiquity as the origin of Greece.
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