ANCIENT & MEDIEVAL HISTORY
We are fairly certain, based on contemporary evidence, that the Battle of Mt. Badon took place, and that the Britons won, for once, against the Anglo-Saxons. However, we do not know where Mt. Badon was. Plenty of people will tell you that they know where Mt. We have no contemporary evidence to suggest that Arthur was at the Battle of Mt. We do know that not all the Celts chose to fight the Anglo-Saxons; there was a fairly substantial migration of Celts from Anglo-Saxon territories to northwest France in Brittany.
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As for some of the broader consequences of these developments, it has to be noted that Britain experienced a relatively short, sharp break with the Roman past, which is not surprising. Romans had come to Britain relatively late.
The Romans came to Britain, they transformed its economy. Before the Romans came, the only region of Britain to use coins as a form of economic exchange was the far southeast because it was relatively close to the continent, and most manufacturing was very localized. The Romans introduced the use of money in every land they conquered. They built towns wherever they went.
They created a large-scale, integrated economy. A few important centers began to manufacture pottery, for example, for the rest of Britain, and because pottery shards tend to survive fairly well on the archaeological record, much of what we know about the British economy is based on pottery. By about A. The Britons reverted back to very small-scale, localized manufacturing of pottery, for example. They have small holes punched in the top of them. Money was turned into decoration rather than used as a form of economic exchange. Town life, too, dwindled fairly quickly in Britain, and by it was essentially dead in Britain.
The towns had been abandoned, the public buildings had been left to fall down and were no longer serving the functions they once had, and only a few squatters remained within any Roman town. Squatters often took up residence in odd places—the bottom of baths very often—and that indicates no one was filling up the baths anymore, and they had simply ceased to serve the function they once had.
The relative speed of this break with the Roman past, only a couple of generations, and the degree of this break, was going to have important long-term consequences for British history. There was a change of name.
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Britannia, the Roman name for Britain, became an archaism, and a new name was adopted. Latin did not become a common language anywhere in the British Isles. Instead, the Germanic language of the conquerors became the standard vernacular. There was also an important linguistic change that had no parallels on the continent. While Francia lost its Roman name and took its name from the Franks, people there still spoke a romance language derived from Latin.
But Latin did not become a common language anywhere in the British Isles. Old English is a Germanic language; English today is still basically a Germanic language, and in lands that the Romans had never conquered, Scotland or Ireland, Celtic languages were spoken instead. This fundamental linguistic change did not occur elsewhere in the western half of the Roman Empire. Learn more about the beginnings of English.
But perhaps the most remarkable break with the Roman past in Anglo-Saxon England concerned religion and the fate of Christianity. On the rest of the European continent, non-Christian invaders adopted the religion of the former Roman peoples over whom they are ruling, and the barbarians became Christians. Anglo-Saxon England is different in this respect because it would appear that the local population abandoned Christianity and adopted either its own paganism or the paganism of the Anglo-Saxons who had come to rule over them.
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Christianity persisted only in the Celtic borderlands, in Ireland and in Scotland. The loss of Christianity in this part of what had once been the Roman Empire is very bad for historians because with the disappearance of Christianity goes the disappearance of literacy as well. The loss of Christianity in this part of what had once been the Roman Empire is very bad for historians because with the disappearance of Christianity goes the disappearance of literacy as well, and the disappearance of written records. What we know about Anglo-Saxon England and this period is derived almost entirely either from archaeology or from accounts written after Christianity is reintroduced, and often dating hundreds of years from the events they purport to describe, or from Celtic authors living in Scotland or, perhaps, Ireland who were somewhat removed in time and space from Anglo-Saxon England.
However, Christianity was not gone from Anglo-Saxon England forever.
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In , missionaries dispatched by Pope Gregory the Great arrived from the European continent. They were fair-skinned, they had light hair, and they looked rather different from the people Gregory the Great was used to seeing in Rome. Learn More: Imperial Politics and Religion. Medieval humor is not for everyone, and my telling of that joke dies time and time again. Nonetheless, you should experience at least some medieval humor. Regardless of whether this was what Gregory the Great said, he did send missionaries to Anglo-Saxon England, and the effort was spearheaded by Augustine of Canterbury.
He arrived in the southeast of England, specifically in the kingdom of Kent, where an Anglo-Saxon king by the name of Ethelbert had a Christian wife.
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Without denying the violence of contemporary conquest and warfare, he shows how such rulers as the Ostrogoth Theoderic, the Vandal king Thrasamund, the Frankish sovereign Dagobert, and the Visigothic ruler Sisebut patronized poets, philosophers, churchmen and artists in their courts.
The resulting image of court cultures between the fifth and ninth centuries both dispels the image of barbarian crudity and provides a context and prehistory of the cultural program of Charlemagne' - Professor Patrick J.
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