In chapter two, Boxer witnesses an explosion that turns out to be an assassination on the owner of a major corporation with questionable business practices. Soon, other benefactors of American capitalism begin to die. Boxer works quickly with Joe Molinari, from Homeland Security, to uncover a plot to derail capitalism worldwide. The motivation for the killings stems from a decades old case in which federal agents killed the brother of the Charles Danko.
Danko has waited decades to pull of his catastrophic payback. His final target involves a bomb and assassination at the G-8 summit. Molinari and Boxer travel up and down the west coast to uncover leads, eventually learning that Danko now teaches in Washington under another name.
Boxer takes down Danko at the G-8 summit, and prevents the bomb from exploding.
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However, another "soldier" of Danko's succeeds in shooting the Vice president of the United States. Once taken into custody, the girl reveals Danko's whole plot. The vice president recovers, but Danko does not. One subplot within the book involves Jill, who finally confesses her husband's pattern of abuse to Boxer and the other women. Jill comes through on a promise to her friends to kick him out, and the women congratulate Jill.
Jill, however, becomes Danko's next victim, because her father helped to prosecute Danko's brother's fellow protesters. Another subplot involves Boxer and Molinari. There are many types of theories regarding personality, but each theory contains several and sometimes many sub theories. A "theory of personality" constructed by any given psychologist will contain multiple relating theories or sub theories often expanding as more psychologists explore the theory. According to trait theories, introversion and extroversion are part of a continuous dimension with many people in the middle.
The idea of psychological types originated in the theoretical work of Carl Jung ,  specifically in his book Psychologische Typen Psychological Types and William Marston. Briggs, delineated personality types by constructing the Myers—Briggs Type Indicator. Theories could also be considered an "approach" to personality or psychology and is generally referred to as a model. The model is an older and more theoretical approach to personality, accepting extroversion and introversion as basic psychological orientations in connection with two pairs of psychological functions:.
Briggs and Myers also added another personality dimension to their type indicator to measure whether a person prefers to use a judging or perceiving function when interacting with the external world. Therefore, they included questions designed to indicate whether someone wishes to come to conclusions judgment or to keep options open perception. This personality typology has some aspects of a trait theory: it explains people's behavior in terms of opposite fixed characteristics. An "N" is further assumed to be guided either by thinking or feeling and divided into the "NT" scientist, engineer or "NF" author, humanitarian temperament.
Critics of this traditional view have observed that the types can be quite strongly stereotyped by professions although neither Myers nor Keirsey engaged in such stereotyping in their type descriptions ,  and thus may arise more from the need to categorize people for purposes of guiding their career choice. They theorized that intense, hard-driving Type A personalities had a higher risk of coronary disease because they are "stress junkies. There was also a Type AB mixed profile. John L.
Holland 's RIASEC vocational model, commonly referred to as the Holland Codes , stipulates that six personality types lead people to choose their career paths.
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In this circumplex model, the six types are represented as a hexagon, with adjacent types more closely related than those more distant. The model is widely used in vocational counseling. Pigors - New York: G. Stechert Company, The Enneagram of Personality , a model of human personality which is principally used as a typology of nine interconnected personality types. It has been criticized as being subject to interpretation, making it difficult to test or validate scientifically. Perhaps the most ancient attempt at personality psychology is the personality typology outlined by the Indian Buddhist Abhidharma schools.
This typology mostly focuses on negative personal traits greed, hatred, and delusion and the corresponding positive meditation practices used to counter those traits.
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Psychoanalytic theories explain human behavior in terms of the interaction of various components of personality. Sigmund Freud was the founder of this school of thought. Freud drew on the physics of his day thermodynamics to coin the term psychodynamics.
Based on the idea of converting heat into mechanical energy, he proposed psychic energy could be converted into behavior. Freud's theory places central importance on dynamic, unconscious psychological conflicts. Freud divides human personality into three significant components: the id, ego and super-ego.
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The id acts according to the pleasure principle , demanding immediate gratification of its needs regardless of external environment; the ego then must emerge in order to realistically meet the wishes and demands of the id in accordance with the outside world, adhering to the reality principle. Finally, the superego conscience inculcates moral judgment and societal rules upon the ego, thus forcing the demands of the id to be met not only realistically but morally.
According to Freud, personality is based on the dynamic interactions of these three components. The channeling and release of sexual libidal and aggressive energies, which ensues from the "Eros" sex; instinctual self-preservation and "Thanatos" death; instinctual self-annihilation drives respectively, are major components of his theory.
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Freud proposed five psychosexual stages of personality development. He believed adult personality is dependent upon early childhood experiences and largely determined by age five. One of Sigmund Freud's earlier associates, Alfred Adler , did agree with Freud that early childhood experiences are important to development and believed birth order may influence personality development.
Adler believed that the oldest child was the individual who would set high achievement goals in order to gain attention lost when the younger siblings were born. He believed the middle children were competitive and ambitious. He reasoned that this behavior was motivated by the idea of surpassing the firstborn's achievements.
He added, however, that the middle children were often not as concerned about the glory attributed with their behavior. He also believed the youngest would be more dependent and sociable. Adler finished by surmising that an only child loves being the center of attention and matures quickly but in the end fails to become independent. Heinz Kohut thought similarly to Freud's idea of transference.
He used narcissism as a model of how people develop their sense of self.
Narcissism is the exaggerated sense of one self in which one is believed to exist in order to protect one's low self-esteem and sense of worthlessness. Kohut had a significant impact on the field by extending Freud's theory of narcissism and introducing what he called the 'self-object transferences' of mirroring and idealization. In other words, children need to idealize and emotionally "sink into" and identify with the idealized competence of admired figures such as parents or older siblings.
They also need to have their self-worth mirrored by these people. These experiences allow them to thereby learn the self-soothing and other skills that are necessary for the development of a healthy sense of self. Another important figure in the world of personality theory is Karen Horney. She is credited with the development of " Feminist Psychology ". She disagrees with Freud on some key points, one being that women's personalities aren't just a function of "Penis Envy", but that girl children have separate and different psychic lives unrelated to how they feel about their fathers or primary male role models.
She posits that to any anxiety an individual experiences they would have one of three approaches, moving toward people, moving away from people or moving against people. It's these three that give us varying personality types and characteristics.
Standards in this strand:
She also places a high premium on concepts like Overvaluation of Love and romantic partners. Behaviorists explain personality in terms of the effects external stimuli have on behavior. The approaches used to analyze the behavioral aspect of personality are known as behavioral theories or learning-conditioning theories.
These approaches were a radical shift away from Freudian philosophy.
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One of the major tenets of this concentration of personality psychology is a strong emphasis on scientific thinking and experimentation. This school of thought was developed by B. Skinner who put forth a model which emphasized the mutual interaction of the person or "the organism" with its environment.
Skinner believed children do bad things because the behavior obtains attention that serves as a reinforcer.
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