This most likely comes from the fact that conspiracy theories have become plentiful as of late. While the hollow Earth has the old school vibe—few theories can battle its longevity—it's just as not as sexy or timely as some of the conspiracies you'll find on, say, Infowars. Who wants to search for an internal world when you can rally against a president setting up FEMA death camps in parking lots, or try to expose a child sex—trafficking ring that is being run out of the basement of a DC pizzeria?
There exists no real place for hollow Earth theorists to organize and recruit as they don't have massive forums on the subject—they've been left behind by time.
Journeys to the Center of the Earth
Cluff told me that the group typically talks to one another through emails and that they do have a presence on YouTube. However, when the group wanders into forums like Godlike Productions or other conspiracy sites, it can have trouble playing well with others. The group members are often made fun of by people who subscribe to cooler theories yes, if you were wondering, there is a hierarchy among conspiracy theories. To cap it off, there exists some friction with the flat-Earthers, who have become hot as hell as of late , because each theory makes the other redundant.
I don't like making fun of people. Cluff told me that he has either seen evidence or talked to more than ten people who have made their way to the inner Earth—this includes a German U-boat operator and an admiral who flew his plane into a polar opening into the hollow Earth. Cluff hasn't been inside, but that's not for lack of trying. For centuries, intrepid hollow Earth theorists have been looking for entrances to the center—some even claiming they've made it.
This is a quest that is ongoing to this day.
The most prominent of the modern-day journey was the proposed "Voyage to the Hollow Earth," which was set to take place in Cluff and other theorists were certain of its success that they even built an itinerary for their trip. On the fourth day, they were to fly to Murmansk, Russia, where they would board a Russian icebreaker ship and make their way toward the North Pole. Once they arrived on the ninth day, they would spend three days searching for the opening. The journey gets a little eccentric past this point. If God forbid they didn't find the entrance, they did have a backup plan.
Sadly, the planning the expedition never worked out. One of their leaders, Steve Currey, died of brain cancer, explained Cluff. The bad luck continued: According to Cluff, another leader was killed after his plane flew into a mountain and the third had to pull out because the largest investor in his company threatened to pull funding if he didn't walk away from his hollow Earth beliefs. The group has attempted a few more voyages but the plans just keep unraveling. That said, Cluff isn't opposed to another attempted voyage—they just need a leader, it couldn't be him though, he said, as he's an author, not an adventurer.
There are tons of people who have expressed interest in this expedition if we can get it off the ground," said Cluff.
Well, sign me up for the next expedition—because goddammit if I wouldn't trade the modern day world for some lost tribes, Vikings, and dinosaurs. With all the hyperpartisan bullshit flying around these days, it's hard to remember that at one time these theories were popular because they spoke directly to your inner child, not your inner asshole. Follow Mack Lamoureux on Twitter.
Jul 18 , pm. Conspiracy theorists get a bad rap these days, and rightfully so. But it wasn't always the case.
Religion and Science: 6 Visions of Earth's Core
Halley's initial idea updated. Photo via Flickr.
A photo taken by the ESSA-7 satellite that hollow Earth theorists believe proves their claims of a polar opening. At a magnetic pole, a compass held in the horizontal plane points randomly, while otherwise it points nearly to the North Magnetic Pole or away from the South Magnetic Pole, though local deviations exist. The two poles wander independently of each other and are not at directly opposite positions on the globe.
Marshall B. Gardner (Author of A Journey to the Earth's Interior)
Magnetic dip pole can migrate rapidly, observation of up to 40 km per year have been made for the North Magnetic Pole [ 6 ]. The Earth's magnetic field can be closely approximated by the field of a magnetic dipole positioned near the centre of the Earth. A dipole 's orientation is defined by an axis.
The two positions where the axis of the dipole that best fits the geomagnetic field intersect the Earth's surface are called the North and South geomagnetic poles. For best fit the dipole representing the geomagnetic field should be placed about km off the center of the Earth. This causes the inner radiation belt to skim lower in Southern Atlantic ocean , where the surface field is the weakest, creating what is called the South Atlantic Anomaly. If the Earth's magnetic field were perfectly dipolar, the geomagnetic and magnetic dip poles would coincide. However, significant non-dipolar terms in an accurate description of the geomagnetic field cause the position of the two pole types to be in different places.
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The strength of the field at the Earth's surface ranges from less than 30 microteslas 0. The average magnetic field strength in the Earth's outer core was measured to be 25 Gauss, 50 times stronger than the magnetic field at the surface. The field is similar to that of a bar magnet. The Earth's magnetic field is mostly caused by electric currents in the liquid outer core. The Earth's core is hotter than K , the Curie point temperature above which the orientations of spins within iron become randomized.
Such randomization causes the substance to lose its magnetization. Convection of molten iron within the outer liquid core, along with a Coriolis effect caused by the overall planetary rotation, tends to organize these "electric currents" in rolls aligned along the north-south polar axis. When conducting fluid flows across an existing magnetic field, electric currents are induced, which in turn creates another magnetic field. When this magnetic field reinforces the original magnetic field, a dynamo is created that sustains itself. This is called the Dynamo Theory and it explains how the Earth's magnetic field is sustained.
Another feature that distinguishes the Earth magnetically from a bar magnet is its magnetosphere. At large distances from the planet, this dominates the surface magnetic field. Electric currents induced in the ionosphere also generate magnetic fields. Such a field is always generated near where the atmosphere is closest to the Sun, causing daily alterations that can deflect surface magnetic fields by as much as one degree.
Typical daily variations of field strength are about 25 nanoteslas nT i. The currents in the core of the Earth that create its magnetic field started up at least 3, million years ago. Magnetometers detect minute deviations in the Earth's magnetic field caused by iron artifacts , kilns, some types of stone structures, and even ditches and middens in archaeological geophysics. Using magnetic instruments adapted from airborne magnetic anomaly detectors developed during World War II to detect submarines, the magnetic variations across the ocean floor have been mapped.
The basalt — the iron-rich, volcanic rock making up the ocean floor — contains a strongly magnetic mineral magnetite and can locally distort compass readings. The distortion was recognized by Icelandic mariners as early as the late 18th century. More important, because the presence of magnetite gives the basalt measurable magnetic properties, these magnetic variations have provided another means to study the deep ocean floor.
Pit of hell
When newly formed rock cools, such magnetic materials record the Earth's magnetic field. Frequently, the Earth's magnetosphere is hit by solar flares causing geomagnetic storms , provoking displays of aurorae. The short-term instability of the magnetic field is measured with the K-index. Recently, leaks have been detected in the magnetic field, which interact with the Sun's solar wind in a manner opposite to the original hypothesis. During solar storms , this could result in large-scale blackouts and disruptions in artificial satellites. Based upon the study of lava flows of basalt throughout the world, it has been proposed that the Earth's magnetic field reverses at intervals, ranging from tens of thousands to many millions of years , with an average interval of approximately , years.
There is no clear theory as to how the geomagnetic reversals might have occurred. Some scientists have produced models for the core of the Earth wherein the magnetic field is only quasi-stable and the poles can spontaneously migrate from one orientation to the other over the course of a few hundred to a few thousand years.
Reading: Studying the Earth’s Interior
Other scientists propose that the geodynamo first turns itself off, either spontaneously or through some external action like a comet impact , and then restarts itself with the magnetic "North" pole pointing either North or South. External events are not likely to be routine causes of magnetic field reversals due to the lack of a correlation between the age of impact craters and the timing of reversals.
Regardless of the cause, when the magnetic pole flips from one hemisphere to the other this is known as a reversal, whereas temporary dipole tilt variations that take the dipole axis across the equator and then back to the original polarity are known as excursions. Studies of lava flows on Steens Mountain , Oregon, indicate that the magnetic field could have shifted at a rate of up to 6 degrees per day at some time in Earth's history, which significantly challenges the popular understanding of how the Earth's magnetic field works.
Paleomagnetic studies such as these typically consist of measurements of the remnant magnetization of igneous rock from volcanic events. Sediments laid on the ocean floor orient themselves with the local magnetic field, a signal that can be recorded as they solidify. Although deposits of igneous rock are mostly paramagnetic , they do contain traces of ferri - and antiferromagnetic materials in the form of ferrous oxides, thus giving them the ability to possess remnant magnetization.
In fact, this characteristic is quite common in numerous other types of rocks and sediments found throughout the world. One of the most common of these oxides found in natural rock deposits is magnetite. As an example of how this property of igneous rocks allows us to determine that the Earth's field has reversed in the past, consider measurements of magnetism across ocean ridges. Before magma exits the mantle through a fissure, it is at an extremely high temperature, above the Curie temperature of any ferrous oxide that it may contain.
The lava begins to cool and solidify once it enters the ocean, allowing these ferrous oxides to eventually regain their magnetic properties, specifically, the ability to hold a remnant magnetization. Assuming that the only magnetic field present at these locations is that associated with the Earth itself, this solidified rock becomes magnetized in the direction of the geomagnetic field. Although the strength of the field is rather weak and the iron content of typical rock samples is small, the relatively small remnant magnetization of the samples is well within the resolution of modern magnetometers.
Related A Journey to the Earths Interior: Have the Poles Really Been Discovered? Evidence for Hollow Earth
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